Origins of Music
Spoken Word Tags: origins music spoken word life production new quality entertainment

Spoken word is an oral art that focuses on the aesthetics of word play and intonation and voice inflection. It is a 'catchall' that includes any kind of poetry recited aloud, including hip-hop, jazz poetry, poetry slams, traditional poetry readings and can include comedy routines and 'prose monologues'.

The art of spoken word has existed for many millennia. Long before writing but through a cycle of reciting, listening and memorizing each language drew on its resources of sound structure for aural patterns that made spoken poetry very different from ordinary discourse and easier to commit to memory.

'There were poets long before there were printing presses, poetry is primarily oral utterance, to be said aloud, to be heard. Poetry, like music, appeals to the ear, an effect known as euphony or onomatopoeia, a device to represent a thing or action by a word that imitates sound. 'Speak again, Speak like rain' was how Kikuyu East African tribesmen described her verse to author Isak Dinesen, confirming Eliot's comment that 'poetry remains one person talking to another.

The oral tradition is one that is conveyed primarily by speech as opposed to writing, in predominantly oral cultures proverbs (also known as maxims) are convenient vehicles for conveying simple beliefs and cultural attitudes. 'The hearing knowledge we bring to a line of poetry is knowledge of a pattern of speech we have known since we were infants'

Performance poetry, which is kindred to performance art, is explicitly written to be performed aloud and consciously shuns the written form. 'Form', as Donald Hall records 'was never more than an extension of content.' In the African traditions, it included drumming, and the use of the 'talking drum'.

In ancient Greece, the spoken word was the most trusted repository for the best of their thought, and inducements would be offered to men (such as the rhapsodes) who set themselves the task of developing minds capable of retaining and voices capable of communicating the treasures of their culture. The Ancient Greeks included Greek lyric, which is similar to spoken-word poetry, in their Olympic Games.

The most notable U.S. exponent of oral poetry, Vachel Lindsay, helped to keep alive the appreciation of poetry as a spoken art in the early twentieth century. Robert Frost also spoke well, his metre accommodating his natural sentences. Poet laureate, Robert Pinsky, also an advocate, considered 'Poetry's proper culmination is to be read aloud by someone's voice; whoever reads a poem aloud becomes the proper medium for the poem. Every speaker intuitively courses through manipulation of sounds; it is almost as though 'we sing to one another all day'. Sound once imagined through the eye gradually gave body to poems through performance, and late in the 1950's reading aloud erupted in the United States'.

Some American spoken-word poetry originated from the poetry of the Harlem Renaissance, blues music, as well as the 1960s Beat Generation. Spoken word in African American culture drew on a rich literary and musical heritage. Langston Hughes and writers of the Harlem Renaissance were inspired by the feelings of the blues and spirituals; hip-hop and slam poetry artists were inspired by poets such as Hughes in their word styling.

The Civil Rights Movement also had an impact on spoken word. Notable speeches such as Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream," Sojourner Truth's "Ain't I a Woman?" and Booker T. Washington's "Cast Down Your Buckets" incorporated elements of oration that influenced the spoken word movement within the African American community. The Last Poets was a poetry and political music group formed during the 1960s that was born out of the Civil Rights movement, and helped increase the popularity of spoken word within African American culture.

Spoken word poetry entered into wider American culture following the release of Gil Scott-Heron's spoken-word poem The Revolution Will Not Be Televised on the album Small Talk at 125th and Lenox in 1970. The Nuyorican Poets Café on New York's Lower Eastside was founded in 1973, and is one of the oldest American venues for presenting spoken-word poetry.

In the 1980s, competitive spoken word poetry competitions emerged, labelled 'poetry slams.' American poet Marc Smith is credited with starting the poetry slam in November 1984. In 1990, the first National Poetry Slam took place in Fort Mason, San Francisco.

The poetry slam movement reached a wider audience following Russell Simmons' Def Poetry, which was aired on HBO between 2002 and 2007.

Outside of the United States, artists such as French singer-songwriters Léo Ferré or Serge Gainsbourg, made a personal use of spoken word over rock or symphonic music from the beginning of the 1970s, in such albums as Amour Anarchie (1970), Histoire de Melody Nelson (1971) or Il n'y a plus rien (1973), and contributed to the popularization of spoken word within French culture.

In the UK, spoken word has been utilised by musicians such as Blur, The Streets and Kate Tempest.

In the Philippines, the art of spoken word has been popularized by the hit romantic comedy series On the Wings of Love (TV series), with one of the supporting characters, Rico (played by Juan Miguel Severo) being a spoken word poet.

In Zimbabwe the art of spoken word has been mostly active on stage through the House of hunger Poetry slam in Harare , Mlomo Wakho Poetry Slam in Bulawayo as well as the Charles Austin theatre in Masvingo . Festivals such as Harare International Festival of the Arts, Intwa Arts Festival KoBulawayo and Shoko Festival have supported the genre for a number of years. Artists such as Chirikure Chirikure , Biko Mutsaurwa (Godobori) , Cynthia Marangwanda (Flowchyld) , Arnold Chirimika (SoProfound) , T Tongai Lesly Makawa (Outspoken) Tendekai P Tati (Madzitatiguru), Philani Amadeus Nyoni , Tswarelo Mothobi (A scribe called Tswa) Samm Farai Monro (Comrade Fatso) and Batsirai Easther Chigama have been active on the Zimbabwean Spoken word scene.

Spoken-word poetry is often performed in a competitive setting. Also known as slam poetry, these competitions began in 1986 when Marc Smith started a poetry slam in Chicago.

In 1990, the first National Poetry Slam was held in San Francisco. It is the largest poetry slam competition event in the world, now held each year in different cities across the United States.

The popularity of slam poetry has resulted in slam poetry competitions being held across the world.

Source: Wikipedia

Planet Rock - By Reginald C. Dennis Tags: planet rock roll hall fame orgins music word life production new quality entertainment

When the surviving members of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five assembled in the grand ballroom of New York City’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and triumphantly accepted the honor of becoming the first hip-hop group ever inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, it was the ultimate endorsement of this unlikely and often maligned genre’s rugged march towards parity, respectability and acceptance.

It might have taken nearly 35 years for the hip-hop’s standard to navigate the nine or so miles from 1520 Sedgwick Avenue in the Bronx — the movement’s ancestral home and headquarters of DJ Kool Herc and his famed Herculoids sound system — to midtown Manhattan, but on that night in 2007, when it finally took its place alongside the others, the circle of rock and roll edged that much closer to completion.

Unfortunately, not everyone saw it that way.  And in some circles, even after the 2009 induction of Run-D.M.C — the group credited with establishing the rap/rock hybrid as a genre of its own — questions regarding hip-hop’s overall merit and legitimacy still persisted.

Hip-Hop — a sub-culture created by and for a segment of the population that had little in the way of formal artistic training or access to the reigns of institutional power— might have blossomed from a local underground youth movement into a global lifestyle with enough street smarts to change the course of most aspects of entertainment, fashion, sports and commerce, but was it really rock and roll? Most would agree that hip-hop music was a state of mind held mostly aloft by endless tales of dangerous women, fast cars, narrow escapes, and the ongoing triumph of the outlaw, but was it truly art?  Its seductive appeal might have fueled the international sales of hundreds of millions of records and introduced scores of devastatingly compelling sounds, tones and production techniques to the world at large, but was it truly music?

The answer to all of these questions and concerns is a resounding yes.

As its supporters have always known and understood, hip-hop is but the latest iteration of a conversation America has been having with itself for the past 400 years. It is a conversation that began with African slaves brought to toil on foreign shores, where traditions were lost and remembered and recreated.  Languages were lost, but the drums remained. Banjos, soul claps and raw husking ditties informed joyful noises of praise, struggle and faraway triumph. And out of this hardship, a portion of American song was forged.  The volume of this conversation — mostly one-sided but always passionate — escalated throughout the 20th century and with the advent of population migrations, new technologies and a restless desire to be heard, wondrous innovations like jazz and the blues soon accompanied a nation’s slow crawl to maturity.

Rock and Roll, what rough living blacks euphemistically called sex, was born during this modern struggle.  World-weary badmen celebrated the improbable mythology of a people who would not be silenced or contained.  Men and women who, though they dwelled in a world that was an arm’s length away from fairness and justice, still heroically fought to be counted.

Not long after helping to create a safe harbor where those charged with safeguarding America’s future could meet, influence and collaborate, did rock and roll change and evolve.  The “Bo Diddley Beat” gave way to a British Invasion and the native sounds — often labeled “devil’s music”— of young America spun off into soul, folk, rock, funk and the early stages of an unfortunate self-segregation. Though infinitely enjoyable, the music of this new era seemed to lack something. Yes, there were grand theatrical displays and men and women still sang songs turbocharged with the hubris and swagger of entitlement, but where was the danger?  Where was the shock of the new?

As it happens, it was already being created, forged and honed for the battle ahead.

By the mid-1970s, the generational alliance between black and white teenage America had eroded and broken apart. Institutions of learning, though desegregated, became hotbeds of racial conflict as students — emboldened by the strict formats of their local radio stations — refused to dance to each other’s music. Separate but equal proms became workable solutions and what little racial harmony there was could easily come undone around the question of whether or not disco sucked. Young black faces no longer felt welcome within the halls of rock and roll and young whites no longer sought blacks to guide them through their turbulent adolescences.  Marginalized, disappointed and culturally estranged, the tastemakers of America needed a reason to come together.

Hip-hop and punk gave both tribes the opportunity to bring something to the table.

If “Rapper’s Delight” by the Sugar Hill Gang — the “Rock Around the Clock” of 1979 — spread the rap gospel to the world beyond the five boroughs of New York, then “Rapture” — Blondie’s unexpected 1980 homage to the still evolving genre — quickly made real the notion that young whites searching for new thrills might once again find something worthwhile on the bleeding edge of black culture.  This cultural mingling worked both ways as men like as Afrika Bambaataa — long known for his eclectic musical tastes — incorporated the best parts of NYC’s other revolution — the outré sounds of punk, electronica and new wave  — into his DJ sets and studio recordings.  In fact, many of the kids who flocked to Bambaataa’s Bronx River parties did so to escape the increasingly formulaic, toothless and watered -down direction that black music had stumbled into and embraced a menu of breaks and beats that skated effortlessly through the funkiest moments of James Brown, Bob James, Sly Stone and the Meters.  With the advent of the rhythmic scratch — courtesy of Grand Wizard DJ Theodore — hip-hop suddenly had its signature sound, a defiant corruption of technology that was strikingly innovative and undeniably urgent. And when the masters of ceremony took to the stage, audiences were treated to an endless barrage of cleverly rhymed boasts, intoxicated harmonies and outrageous volleys of shouted call and response. Topical, magnetic and capable of traveling at the speed of thought, this was the genesis of a new American dialog, one sorely needed and long overdue.  And if rock and roll has a purpose, it is to get people in a position, either intellectually or geographically, to communicate with one another.  Hip-Hop merely achieved that mandate on a grander scale and in half the time.

In 2010 cultural diversity is the fulcrum that turns the world of culture. Today’s generation has never known a world without the cross pollinating effects of BET and MTV. Their musical heroes are just as likely to rap as sing and many are proficient at both as a matter of course. Rappers perform with live bands and DJs often accompany rock groups. Samplers and drum machines are legitimate means to an end and the sales of turntables nearly equal those of guitars. The 21st century is the age of the cultural mash-up, a digital age where all things are welcome, equal and accepted.  It’s what Afrika Bambaataa called “Planet Rock.”

To deny hip-hop an honored place in rock’s narrative is to take a tremendous leap backwards and disregard a near century’s worth of shared cultural markers. In the tradition of rock and roll hip-hop was born from the everyday struggles of black life. Locked away from upward mobility, its marginalized creators celebrated the earthy pleasures of the moment.  Championed by influential DJs, its innovative sounds, topics and rhythms were propelled to national prominence.  Imitated, maligned and feared, it quickly achieved supremacy over its era and became institution unto itself. And it is the enduring power of that institution that we recognize.

Source: The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc.

Motown - The Sound that Changed America Tags: motwon black music hitsville usa word life production new quality entertainment featured blog

As an irresistible force of social and cultural change, Berry Gordy’s legendary Motown made its mark not just on the music industry, but society at large, with a sound that has become one of the most significant musical accomplishments and stunning success stories of the 20th century. Diana Ross & the Supremes, Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, Stevie Wonder, the Temptations, the Four Tops, Marvin Gaye, Michael Jackson & the Jackson 5, the Marvelettes, Martha Reeves and the Vandellas, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Lionel Richie & the Commodores, Teena Marie, their music communicated and brought together a racially divided country and segregated society, around the world, touching all people of all ages and races.

No other record company in history has exerted such an enormous influence on both the style and substance of popular music and culture. With more than 180 No. 1 hit songs worldwide and counting, that influence is still being felt today, from pop to hip-hop. Motown recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of the company’s founding.

Motown, of course, stands for more than just the historic music. The label and its remarkable legacy is a reflection of the hard work of dedicated individuals overcoming incredible obstacles to achieve great success. Over a half-century ago, on January 12, 1959, to be exact, a young African-American songwriter named Berry Gordy founded his company with a loan of $800 from his family, marking the birth of the “Motown Records Corporation.” Because Detroit had long been known as the “Motor City,” Gordy, in tribute to what he felt was the down-home quality of the warm, soulful people he grew up around, used “town” in place of “city,” which gave him the contraction “Motor Town” and the perfect name for his company and new label—Motown.

A man of vision, drive, talent and determination, Berry Gordy was also a producer, innovative entrepreneur, and teacher. The phenomenal success of Motown Records is a tribute to all that he embodies and all the talent that he brought out in others. Under his leadership, and through determination and support of the Motown family of artists, Gordy forged new grounds for minorities and made the “Motown Sound” a worldwide phenomenon beloved by millions to this day.

Berry Gordy believed in turning negatives into positives. He always learned from all his experiences and applied them to his business. The tedious time he spent working on the assembly line at Detroit’s Lincoln-Mercury automobile plant he put to good use: “Every day I watched how a bare metal frame, rolling down the line would come off the other end, a spanking brand new car. What a great idea! Maybe, I could do the same thing with my music. Create a place where a kid off the street could walk in one door, an unknown, go through a process, and come out another door, a star.” That little thought that came to him while running up and down that assembly line became a reality we now know as “Motown.”

From his experience at Lincoln-Mercury, he also set up a system at Motown called Quality Control, in order to ensure only top product would be released. Meetings were held on Friday mornings where producers would submit their product to be voted on. All were free to express their honest opinions. Gordy said these meetings were one of the key elements of the company’s overall growth and success. The competition was fierce––and so was the love. It was survival of the fittest. The artists flourished in that process, as well as the songwriter/producers like Holland-Dozier-Holland, Norman Whitfield, Ashford and Simpson and Smokey Robinson. They were all as distinctive as the artists they produced.

When Motown was housed in its famed Hitsville U.S.A. offices at 2648 West Grand Boulevard in Detroit, it was not just a location; history would be made there. In fact, Berry Gordy created a 24-hour hit-making and artist development factory, nurturing the artistic talent of the singers, writers, producers, as well as corporate executives.

Today, Motown is not only the greatest pop music hit factory ever heard, but an institution, a state of mind, a way of life, a style, the “Sound of Young America.” The distinctive, upbeat and uplifting music brought together pop and soul, white and black, old and young, like never before and continues to this day. Regardless of race or social background, teenage girls admired Diana Ross and teenage boys pretended to be Smokey Robinson. Motown became the heartbeat of American pop music. With multi-platinum artists ranging from the Miracles, Temptations, Four Tops and Supremes to Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, and Jackson 5, the House That Gordy Built had and has no rival.

Motown defined the term “crossover” not only on record and stage, but also behind the scenes. After breaking down barriers and having pop radio embrace Motown artists, Berry Gordy set his sights on television, movies. He booked his artists on popular shows such as American Bandstand and The Ed Sullivan Show. After captivating national audiences with repeat performances on these shows, The Supremes were the first R&B act to play the country’s most prestigious night club, New York’s Copacabana, which paved the way for other R&B acts into the top cabaret circuits around the world.

Motown was the first African-American-owned record label to reach widespread national acclaim. Motown broke down racial prejudice by becoming the most successful independent record company in history and the most successful African-American-owned business in America.

After Gordy purchased that first Detroit property, he converted the garage into a small recording studio and the kitchen into the control room. The company’s first signing was the Miracles, led by Smokey Robinson, and its first release was Marv Johnson’s “Come to Me,” January 21, 1959. But its first major hit was Barrett Strong’s “Money (That’s What I Want),” a song co-written by Gordy himself, which reached #2 on Billboard’s R&B chart in 1960. A year later, the Miracles would score the company’s first million seller with “Shop Around.” That same year, teen girl group the Marvelettes landed the company’s first pop No. 1, “Please Mr. Postman,” while the label signed two young groups, the Supremes and the Temptations. Within three years, those two groups would lead Motown into the mainstream, when the Supremes launched an unprecedented string of five consecutive No. 1 hits, starting with “Where Did Our Love Go,” while the Temptations released the eternal Motown classic, “My Girl.”

In 1968 the company had five records out of the Top 10 on Billboard’s Hot 100 chart and accomplished another unprecedented feat by seizing the top three spots for a full month.

In the late 80’s and 90’s all of Motown’s major artists were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Upon his own induction in 1988, Motown’s founder was given the following tribute: “Gordy endeavored to reach across the racial divide with music that could touch all people, regardless of the color of their skin.

“Under his tutelage, Motown became a model of black capitalism, pride and self-expression and a repository for some of the greatest talent ever assembled at one company… Motown’s stable of singers, songwriters, producers and musicians took the concept of simple, catchy pop songs to a whole new level of sophistication and, thanks to the music’s roots in gospel and blues, visceral intensity… After Motown, Black popular music would never again be dismissed as a minority taste… Aesthetically no less than commercially, Motown’s achievements will likely remain unrivaled and unstoppable.”

Today, the label is part of the Universal Music Group, with its classic recorded music catalog managed by Universal Music Enterprises (UMe). The timeless songs from Motown between 1959 and 1985 are represented by EMI Music Publishing.

Source: Motown Museum

Origins of a New Music: (Hip Hop) A Generation Defines Itself Tags: origins music hip hop word life production new quality entertainment featured blog

The rap musical style arose in 1973 in New York City’s South Bronx.  Its original purpose was to promote musical and dance competitions among the areas inner city youths who had few outlets for their creative energies.  Rap pioneer Kool Herc (aka Clive Campbell) began using simple raps to cover a mix of beats played from two turntables.  At the same time, Afrika Bambaataa developed a political version of rap by merging the ideology of the Nation of Islam with the Black Panthers’ culture nationalism.  Bambaataa’s Zulu Nation promoted competitions in break dancing, rapping, and graffiti art and helped spread rap among poor black and Latino neighborhoods. The first commercial rap hit, “Rappers Delight” by the Sugar Hill Gang, came out in 1979 and popularized the term hip-hop.  This was followed by the rise to stardom of Grand Master Flash and the Furious Five, which grew out of 1970s funk but added rap vocals and the technique of scratching-moving back and forth under a needle to produce a rhythmic, jarring sound, and manipulating turntable speeds.  Much of this music was made for entertainment in the club scene, but some rappers, following the early lead of the spoken-word artists and poets, Amiri Baraka, Gil Scott-Heron, and The Last Poets, offered a political critique of American society wrapped in taunting humor. For African American youths, who the world had seemingly left behind and ignored, hip hop became the most important cultural event of their lives.  It was a creative medium in which a disposed generation could discuss the things that mattered most to them, especially their lives in cities burdened by racial poverty and all which that entailed.

 

In the Reagan years (1981-1989), a few middle class Americans cared to acknowledge the millions left behind in urban decay.  Conditions in the inner cities worsened during this period, when crack flooded neighborhoods and gang warfare erupted over drug turfs.  The “Keeping it Real” lyrics of Hip Hop artists helped forge a sense of community and common destiny among members of a trapped generation.  As James McBride wrote in 2007 in National Geographic, hip-hop “is a music dipped in the boiling cauldron of race and class. Rap Music goes Mainstream Ironically, white indifference allowed the first hip-hop entrepreneurs to take control of the production, dissemination, and profits connected with this musical genre.  Russell Simmons saw the potential of rap street music in the mid-70s and recognized that the mainstream entertainment was not aware of it.  He became a concert promoter, encouraging earlier rap groups to stay close to the dress styles and language of the inner city African American community.  In 1984 he and Rick Rubin formed Def Jam Records. Their bands, such as Run DMC and Public Enemy, became enormously popular, and many of their albums sold millions of copies. Simmons expanded his business to include marketing hip-hop clothing under the label Phat Pharm and promoting poetry and comedy acts.

 

In 2000, he sold his share of Def Jam for over a $100 Million.  Like Simmons, P. Diddy (aka Sean “Puff Daddy” Combs) found success by working in the mainstream industry.  Raised in a suburban neighborhood, P. Diddy dropped out of Howard University in 1990 to work for Uptown Records, where his knowledge of the rap scene and instinct for hits fueled a rapid rise to vice president.  In 1993 he formed his own company, Bad Boy Records, which was an immediate success. Commercial success brought new groups to the fore, and the genre changed and grew tremendously during the 1980s and 1990s.  Rap bands such as Run DMC, which dominated the charts in the Mid-1980s, brought the sound to MTV and to a larger public, which soon came to include white suburban teens.  Hip-hop culture quickly spread beyond New York to other African American urban centers, and each developed a distinctive, and often more graphic variant of the original.  With the music came changes in clothing style, such as baggy, loose fitting jeans, that trend hungry fashion designers quickly adopted. White suburban youths had always been the wealthiest consumers of Hip Hop and its cultural artifacts.

 

By 2000, hip-hop had become a global cultural force and the source of astonishing profit for men such as Russell Simmons and Sean P. Diddy Combs-and for white-owned business and music companies.  Not surprisingly, the recurrence of the age old tension between black creativity and white profits fueled new debate.  As cultural studies analyst Gregg Tate put it, “Our music, our fashion, our hairstyles, our dances, our anatomical traits, our bodies, our souls continue to be considered ever ripe for the picking and the biting by the same crafty devils the African slave trade and the Middle Passage. Gangster Rap The Southern California group NWA (Niggas with Attitude) was one of the most successful of the new rap bands coming out in the late 1980s.  Their 1988 release of the album “Straight out of Compton” heralded the rise of gangster rap.  Its song “Gangsta, Gangsta” shocked many observers with its sexist and violent lyrics.  Particularly troubling, however is the persistent objectification of women in hard core rap music and related films.  The widespread use of the term @!$%#es and ho’s by rappers to describe black women reflects broader gender divisions within the black community.  Indeed, rap’s betrayal of black women as objects   and commodities to be used by men-as something less than human-bears an all too close resemblance to racist characterizations of black women from the era of slavery.

 

The emerging voluminous scholarship of hip hop black studies demonstrates a wiliness to tackle the hard questions about gender relations.  Many works explore the relationship between Hip Hop and commercial rap music, suggesting that commercial rap is to hip-hop what orange drink is to orange juice-a watered down imitation of the real thing.  Of particular interest to hip-hop scholars such as T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting and Mark Anthony Neal is the depiction in hip-hop lyrics of black women and the relationship between men and women and gays and lesbians within the larger society and especially in the hip-hop nation.  Sharpley-Whitley asked pointedly, “How have hip-hop’s lyrics and visual rifts on the acrimonious and sexually charged nature of male-female relationships encouraged the sexual abuse of young black women?”  This issue gained national attention in 2007 when white radio talk show host Don Imus referred to the black players on the Rutgers University women’s basketball team as a bunch of “nappy-head hos.”  His comments inflamed the black community and led Jessie Jackson and Al Sharpton to mobilize a protest that resulted in Imus being fired.  Some of his defendants argued that he merely repeated often heard refrains in rap music.  Others insisted that both his derogatory comments and the use of the same words in rap lyrics arose from negative images of black women that were deeply rooted in American culture and needed to be condemned whenever they were used. It is important to underscore the fact that the rap genres include many bands that explicitly reject hardcore obscenity and violence.  Artist like Queen Latifah, for example, avoid denigrating other African Americans even as they put forward a message of empowerment for black women and men.  Other black female hip hop artists were also in the game.  Many, such as Lil’ Kim, made sexuality their signature in many ways that left little to the imagination. Even more noteworthy is the extent to which hip hop has migrated beyond the United States and is now such a global culture that commentators talk about a “Hip-Hop Planet.”  It has influenced music worldwide, particularly across the African Diaspora.  France, for example, has a thriving rap music scene.  Most of his artist is Arab, African, or Spanish descent whose music focuses on ethnic and racial discrimination and social criticism.  Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America have also developed rap that builds on indigenous African music.  The ability of rap to combine with other musical forms to create compelling hybrids and the global penetration of American popular culture ensures that hip-hop will continue to thrive and evolve.  In the words of National Geographic’s James McBride, “Hip-hop remains….a cry of ‘I am’ from the youth of the world.”

 

This article was taken from Tidewater Community College/The African-American Odyssey combined volume-fourth Edition pg. 677-680/Darlene Clark Hine/William C. Hine/Stanley Harrold

 

  

 

 

 

 

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